# Loom file format specs¶

## Versions¶

This specification defines the Loom file format version 2.0.1.

## Introduction¶

The .loom file format is designed to efficiently hold large omics datasets. Typically, such data takes the form of a large matrix of numbers, along with metadata for the rows and columns. For example, single-cell RNA-seq data consists of expression measurements for all genes (rows) in a large number of cells (columns), along with metadata for genes (e.g. Chromosome, Strand, Location, Name), and for cells (e.g. Species, Sex, Strain, GFP positive).

We designed .loom files to represent such datasets in a way that treats rows and columns the same. You may want to cluster both genes and cells, you may want to perform PCA on both of them, and filter based on quality controls. SQL databases and other data storage solutions almost always treat data as a table, not a matrix, and makes it very hard to add arbitrary metadata to rows and columns. In contrast, .loom makes this very easy.

Furthermore, current and future datasets can have tens of thousands of rows (genes) and hundreds of thousands of columns (cells). We designed .loom for efficient access to arbitrary rows and columns.

The annotated matrix format lends itself to very natural representation of common analysis tasks. For example, the result of a clustering algorithm can be stored simply as another attribute that gives the cluster ID for each cell. Dimensionality reduction such as PCA or t-SNE, similarly, can be stored as two attributes giving the projection coordinates of each cell.

Finally, we recognize the importance of graph-based analyses of such datasets. Loom supports graphs of both the rows (e.g. genes) and the columns (e.g. cells), and multiple graphs can be stored each file.

## HDF5 concepts¶

The .loom format is based on HDF5, a standard for storing large numerical datasets. Quoting from h5py.org:

An HDF5 file is a container for two kinds of objects: datasets, which are array-like collections of data, and groups, which are folder-like containers that hold datasets and other groups. The most fundamental thing to remember when using h5py is: Groups work like dictionaries, and datasets work like NumPy arrays.

A valid .loom file is simply an HDF5 file that contains specific groups representing the main matrix as well as row and column attributes. Because of this, .loom files can be created and read by any language that supports HDF5, including Python, R, MATLAB, Mathematica, C, C++, Java, and Ruby.

## Specification¶

A valid .loom file conforms to the following:

### Main matrix and layers¶

• There MUST be a single HDF5 dataset at /matrix, of dimensions (N, M)
• There can OPTIONALLY be a HDF5 group /layers containing additional matrices (called “layers”)
• Each additional layer MUST have the same (N, M) shape
• Each layer can have a different data type, compression, chunking etc.

### Global attributes¶

• There can OPTIONALLY be at least one HDF5 attribute on the root / group, which can be any valid scalar or multidimensional datatype and should be interpreted as attributes of the whole .loom file.
• There can OPTIONALLY be an HDF5 attribute on the root / group named LOOM_SPEC_VERSION, a string value giving the loom file spec version that was followed in creating the file. See top of this document for the current version of the spec.

### Row and column attributes¶

• There MUST be a group /row_attrs
• There can OPTIONALLY be one or more datasets at /row_attrs/{name} whose first dimension has length N
• There MUST be a group /col_attrs
• There can OPTIONALLY be one or more datasets at /col_attrs/{name} whose first dimension has length M

The datasets under /row_attrs should be semantically interpreted as row attributes, with one value per row of the main matrix, and in the same order. Therefore, all datasets under this group must be arrays with exactly N elements, where N is the number of rows in the main matrix.

The datasets under /col_attrs should be semantically interpreted as column attributes, with one value per column of the main matrix, and in the same order. Therefore, all datasets under this group must be arrays with exactly M elements, where M is the number of columns in the main matrix.

### Row and column sparse graphs¶

• There MUST be a group /col_graphs
• There can OPTIONALLY be one or more groups at /col_graphs/{name}
• Under each /col_graphs/{name} group, there MUST be three one-dimensional datasets called a (integer), b (integer) and w (float). These should be interpreted as a sparse graph in coordinate list format. The lengths of the three datasets MUST be equal, which defines the number of edges in the graph. Note that the number of columns in the dataset defines the vertices, so an unconnected vertex is one that has no entry in a or b.
• There MUST be a group /row_graphs
• There can OPTIONALLY be one or more groups at /row_graphs/{name}
• Under each /row_graphs/{name} group, there MUST be three one-dimensional datasets called a (integer), b (integer) and w (float). These should be interpreted as a sparse graph in coordinate list format. The lengths of the three datasets MUST be equal, which defines the number of edges in the graph. Note that the number of rows in the dataset defines the vertices, so an unconnected vertex is one that has no entry in a or b.

## Datatypes¶

The main matrix and additional layers MUST be two-dimensional arrays of one of these numeric types: int8, int16, int32, int64, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64, float16, float32 and float64. Each layer can have its own datatype.

Row and column attributes are multidimensional arrays whose first dimension matches the corresponding main matrix dimension. The elements MUST be of one of the numeric datatypes int8, int16, int32, int64, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64, float16, float32 and float64 or fixed-length ASCII strings.

Global attributes are scalars or multidimensional arrays of any shape, whose elements are any of the numeric datatypes int8, int16, int32, int64, uint8, uint16, uint32, uint64, float16, float32 and float64 or fixed-length ASCII strings.

All strings in Loom files are stored as fixed-length 7-bit ASCII. Unicode characters outside 7-bit ASCII are stored using XML entity encoding, to ensure maximum compatibility. Strings SHOULD be decoded when read and encoded when written. A compatible implementation may choose to encode/decode or not, but MUST decode on reading if it encodes on writing.

## Example¶

Here’s an example of the structure of a valid .loom file:

Group Type Description
/matrix float32[N,M] or uint16[N,M] Main matrix of N rows and M columns
/layers/ (subgroup) Subgroup of additional matrix layers
/row_attrs/ (subgroup) Subgroup of all row attributes
/row_attrs/Name string[N] Row attribute “Name” of type string
/col_attrs/ (subgroup) Subgroup of all column attributes
/col_attrs/CellID float64[M] Column attribute “CellID” of type float64
/col_graphs/ (subgroup) Subgroup of all column graphs
/col_graphs/KNN (subgroup) A column graph “KNN”
/col_graphs/KNN/a int32[E] Vector of edge ‘from’ vertices
/col_graphs/KNN/b int32[E] Vector of edge ‘to’ vertices
/col_graphs/KNN/w float32[E] Vector of edge weights
/row_graphs/ (subgroup) Subgroup of all row graphs